Yellow Fever-What is it?
Yellow Fever is a tropical disease that affect the liver and kidneys, causing fever and often fatal. It causes severe viral hemorrhagic disease from the yellow fever virus. 50% of patients who go without treatment will die from it. Yellow fever is localized in Tropical areas of Africa, and Latin America.
Vectorborne transmission occurs via the bite of an infected mosquito. Nonhuman and human primates are the main reservoirs of the virus, with human-to-vector-to-human transmission occurring. Humans infected with yellow fever experience the highest levels of viruses in the blood, and can transmit the virus to mosquitoes shortly before onset of fever and for the first 3-5 days of illness.
Yellow Fever-Where do you find it?
Yellow fever occurs in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America, where it is endemic and intermittently epidemic. In Africa, natural immunity accumulates with age, and thus, infants and children are at highest risk for disease. In South America, yellow fever occurs most frequently in un-immunized young men who are exposed to mosquito vectors through their work in forested or transitional areas.
fever, chills, severe headache, back pain, general body aches, nausea, and vomiting, fatigue, and weakness.
Risk for Travelers
A travelers risk for acquiring yellow fever is determined by various factors, including immunization status, location of travel, season, duration of exposure, occupational and recreational activities while traveling, and local rate of virus transmission at the time of travel. Although reported cases of human disease are the principal indicator of disease risk, case reports may be absent because of a low level of transmission, a high level of immunity in the population, or failure of local surveillance systems to detect cases.
YFV transmission in rural West Africa is seasonal, with an elevated risk during the end of the rainy season and the beginning of the dry season (usually July-October). However the yellow fever virus may be episodically transmitted by the mosquito even during the dry season in both rural and densely settled urban areas.
The risk for infection in South America is highest during the rainy season (January-May, with a peak incidence in February and March). The chance of acquiring yellow fever is difficult to predict because of variations in ecologic determinants of virus transmission. For a 2-week stay, the risks for illness and death due to yellow fever for an unvaccinated traveler traveling to an endemic area in:
- West Africa are 50 per 100,000 and 10 per 100,000, respectively
- South America are 5 per 100,000 and 1 per 100,000, respectively
The risk of acquiring yellow fever in South America is lower than that in Africa, because the mosquitoes that transmit the virus between monkeys in the forest canopy in South America do not often come in contact with humans. Additionally, there is a relatively high level of immunity in local residents because of vaccine use, which might reduce the risk of transmission.
Yellow fever is preventable by a relatively safe, effective vaccine. All yellow fever vaccines currently manufactured are live-attenuated viral vaccines (Live-attenuated: an infectious agent that has been altered so that it becomes harmless or less virulent). For people who remain at risk, a booster dose is recommended every 10 years. Yellow fever vaccine may be given at the same time as most other vaccine.
Yellow Fever-Who should get the vaccine?
Persons 9 months through 59 years of age traveling to or living in an area where yellow fever transmission has occurred should get the vaccine.Â In addition, laboratory personnel who might be exposed to yellow fever virus or vaccine virus should get the vaccine as well.
Yellow Fever-Who should not get the vaccine?
Infants younger than 6 months of age should not get the vaccine. Adults 60 years or older who cannot avoid travel to a yellow fever area should discuss vaccinations with their doctor.
Yellow Fever Vaccine-Finding a location
Yellow Fever vaccine, and other travel vaccinations, can be found at Advantage Vaccination Services at 8283 Grove Ave Ste 107, Rancho Cucamonga, CA 91730. Phone number is (866) 261-6460. We help with travel to South America. Travel to West Europe. Travel to India. Travel to Africa. The staff at the Travel Clinic includes trained medical professionals with a passion for travel and Travel Health.
Yellow Fever Vaccine-driving directions
Advantage Vaccination Services is found by starting at the Riverside City Hall, located 3900 Main St. Riverside, CA 92501. From this location the clinic is approximately 10 miles West on 60, 3 miles North on 15, and 5 miles West on 10, exiting on Grove Ave. Vaccinations and travel consultation is provided by appointment or walk-in service Monday to Friday, 9:30am to 5pm.